Oak Wood — Evolved Gas Analysis (GC-MS)

TG-DTG-T plot of oak wood, 4.37 mg, N2, event-controlled triggering of the GC-MS run at 291°C and at 347°C (DTG threshold 8 %/min; temperature stops until GC-MS run is finished). Detailed analysis of the gas composition is achieved by the GC furnace program: isothermal 60°C for 0.5 min, linear heating to 310°C at 25 K/min.

Evolved Gas Analysis (QMS) of Pitch Carbon Powder

Pitch carbon powder (55.2 mg) decomposes in nitrogen flow (50 ml/min) into aromatic compounds of high molecular weight, mainly up to 600°C. Only selection is shown by MID curves for pyrenes (m/z = 202), Triphenylenes (m/z = 228), Benzo(a)pyrenes (m/z = 252), Benzo(ghi)perylenes (m/z = 276) and Dibenzopyrenes (m/z = 302). (measurement with QMS 403/5 SKIMMER®)

Evolved Gas Analysis (STA-FT-IR) of Straw

Straw is a generic term for threshed, dried corn stalks and the leaves of plants used to produce oils and fibers. In addition to its use in agriculture, straw also has the potential to become important as an energy carrier in the future. To characterize its thermal behavior, 28.6 mg of powdered straw was measured in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 20 K/min.

The TGA curve depicts three steps at 110°C, 298°C and 356°C (each characterized by its DTG peak temperature) plus a drawn-out step in the temperature range above 400°C. The corresponding mass losses are 5% for the first step, 33.4% and 25.3% for the two overlapping ones in the middle, and 10.7% for the last effect. At around 740°C, there is still a residue of 25.6%.

A library search of the corresponding FT-IR spectra shows that the first TGA step (110°C) is caused by dehydration, whereas the steps at 298°C and 356°C pertain to the evolution of water, CO, CO2, formic acid, acetic acid and ethane. Furthermore, methane was found at approx. 534°C. The traces of water, carbon monoxide and methane are plotted here together with the TGA and DTG curves. For a better overview, the DSC-signal is not displayed here. The NETZSCH Proteus® software allows for FT-IR traces to be easily imported. (measurement with PERSEUS® STA 449 F1/F3)

Phase Transitions of Potassium Nitrate

Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is used for the synthesis of gunpowder (sulphur, char and KNO3). It is also used in food preservation (E252) and as an important potassium- and nitrogencontaining fertilizer. The measurement was carried out in scanning mode with a constant power input of 200 mW. Two endothermal effects at 129°C (peak area of -45 J/g) and at 334°C (-87 J/g) are related to phase transitions. (measurement with MMC 274 Nexus®)

Thermal Runaway Reaction of 20% DTBP

DTBP (Di-tert-butyl peroxide) is the commonly used standard substance to carry out ARC measurements. The plot shows the thermal runaway reaction of 20% DTBP in toluene, accompanied by the pressure increase after 600 min.